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Matters needing attention in operation of reaction kettle and distillation kettle
Jan 12, 2020

1. Reaction out of control leads to fire explosion


Many chemical reactions, such as oxidation, chlorination, nitrification and polymerization, are all strong exothermic reactions. If the reaction is out of control or in case of sudden power failure or water failure, the reaction heat will accumulate, the temperature in the reaction kettle will rise sharply and the pressure will increase, which will lead to the vessel rupture. Material ejected from the rupture may cause fire and explosion accident; The equilibrium state of the material vapor pressure is destroyed due to the explosion of the reactor. The unstable superheated liquid will cause two explosions (steam explosion). The ejected material then spreads rapidly, and the space around the reactor is covered by droplets of flammable liquid or steam, and three explosions (mixed gas explosion) will occur when the ignition source is encountered.


The main reasons for the runaway reaction are: the reaction heat is not removed in time, the reaction material is not evenly dispersed and the operation is wrong.


2. The high-pressure materials in the reaction vessel rushed into the low-pressure system and caused the explosion


The atmospheric pressure or low-pressure equipment connected with the reaction vessel may explode physically due to the bursting of the high-pressure material which exceeds the pressure limit of the reaction vessel.


3. An accident occurs when water vapor or water leaks into the reaction vessel


If the water vapor, heat conduction oil used for heating or the water used for cooling leaks into the reaction kettle or the distillation kettle, it may react with the materials in the kettle, decompose and release heat, resulting in a sharp rise in temperature and pressure, material outburst and fire accident.


4. The lack of cooling water in the distillation and condensation system caused an explosion


During the distillation process, if the cooling water of the condenser on the top of the tower is interrupted, while the materials in the kettle are still in the distillation cycle, the system will change from the original normal pressure or negative pressure to positive pressure, which will cause an explosion beyond the bearing capacity of the equipment.


5. Container explosion accident caused by heat


The reaction vessel is exposed to a fire of external combustibles or heat radiation from a hot heat source, which causes the temperature inside the vessel to rise sharply and the pressure to increase.


6. Improper operation of materials in and out of containers causes accidents


Many low-flash class a flammable liquids enter the reaction kettle and distillation kettle from the pipeline by means of liquid pump or vacuum extraction. Most of these materials are insulating materials with poor electrical conductivity. If the material flows too fast, the accumulated static electricity will not be removed in time, resulting in combustion and explosion accidents.


7. The operators were relaxed and did not find the accident in time


The reaction kettle usually reacts under atmospheric pressure or exposure, while the distillation kettle generally operates under atmospheric pressure or negative pressure. Some people think that, in the normal pressure, exposure or negative pressure under the operation of the risk is not big, often in the mind paralysis lax, can not timely find and deal with the emergence of sudden accidents, eventually lead to an accident. In fact, atmospheric pressure or open reaction kettle, the pressure of the wall of the reactor is greater than the pressure of the reactor, the greater risk.


For the distillation kettle, if the operator makes a mistake in operation and the reaction is out of control, the pipeline valve system will be blocked, and the normal atmospheric pressure and vacuum state will become positive pressure. If the disposal cannot be found in time and there is no emergency pressure relief device, fire and explosion accidents are likely to occur.

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